Mustard and rye are grown as major oilseeds (groundnut, mustard, soybean) crops. The mustard crop is known to give more profit at less cost. Mustard cultivation is mainly done in the districts of Madhavpur, Bharatpur Sawai, Kota, Jaipur, Alwar, Karoli etc. of Rajasthan. Mustard is used to extract oil from its grains. Hence, mustard oil is used in large quantities in our country. Apart from oil, oil cake also comes out from mustard seeds, which are used as animal feed. Its cake contains about 2.5 per cent phosphorus, 1.5 per cent potash and 4 to 9 percent nitrogen.
Types of Mustard
There are mainly two types of mustard found in India, known by the names black mustard and yellow mustard, which farmers sow in the field according to the soil and season and can produce good yields.
Black mustard is complex and round and has larger seeds than yellow mustard. The colour of this mustard varies from dark brown to black. Farmer brothers use this mustard mainly to sell crops, and its yield is also high. It is used more in edible oil, and beneficial to feed animals, or farmers can also sell directly in the market.
Yellow mustard is also called mustard, whose grains are smaller in size than black mustard seeds, and there is a slight difference in taste. While the oil of black mustard seeds is extracted and used in food, mustard seeds are used in pickles and for tempering.
Soil, Climate & Temperature
The Winter season is considered quite suitable for the mustard crop. Its plants need 18 to 24 degree temperature to grow well. Rainy or shady weather during flowering in mustard plants is harmful to the crop. Most of the soil and sandy loam soil is required to cultivate mustard. Its crop cannot be done in alkaline and acidic soil. Moreover, Mini Tractor models are enough for its cultivation process.
Before planting mustard seeds in the field, the field should be appropriately prepared so that a good yield of mustard can be obtained. For mustard cultivation, friable soil is required. Since mustard is grown after Kharif the crop, the field should be well ploughed deeply so that the remnants of the old crop are destroyed.
After this, leave the field open for a few days so that the soil gets sunlight properly. Then apply a rotavator and plough the field two to three diagonally. After pressing, get it started with a pat so the field will be level and there will be no problem like water logging.
Mustard should be sown between September to October. After that, it can be planted till the end of October, but only in irrigated areas. Then, 25 to 27 degree temperature is considered suitable for its sowing, and mustard is sown in rows. For this, the rows should be prepared to keep a distance of 30 cm in the field. After this, mustard seeds should be planted, keeping a distance of 10 cm.
Before sowing the seeds, they should be treated with the appropriate amount of Mancozeb. After this, the seeds should be planted in depth according to the soil’s moisture. 3 to 5 kg of seeds are required per hectare.
Manure and Fertiliser
A good amount of manure and fertiliser should be given in the field for good crop yield. For this, 8 to 10 tonnes of old cow dung should be applied per hectare at the time of ploughing the field. After this:
- Drive the tractor in the area and mix the cow dung well.
- Use 30 to 40 kg of phosphorus, 375 kg of gypsum, 80 kg of nitrogen and 60 kg of sulphur per hectare per hectare as chemical fertiliser.
- Give the total phosphorus, half nitrogen at the tillage and half at the initial irrigation.
Since mustard seeds are planted in the winter, they do not require much irrigation. But good yield can be obtained by irrigation at the right time. After this, a second irrigation should be done in 60 to 70 days. Then finally, water should be applied if irrigation is required in the field. And for handling equipment Mahindra tractor models are suitable. Also, these models are available at nominal price range.
In order for mustard plants to grow well, it is necessary to control weeds. For this, weeds should be removed by weeding naturally. Its first weeding should be done within 25 to 30 days. After this, from time to time, when weeds appear in the field, then it should be mulched. Apart from this, weed control can be done chemically by spraying flumerelin with the proper amount of irrigation.
The mustard crop is fully ripe and ready in 125 to 150 days. After which it can be harvested. If its plants are not harvested at the right time, then its beans start cracking. Due to this, the yield can be reduced by 7 to 10 per cent. It should be harvested when the pods appear yellow in mustard plants. The mustard plant gives a result of 25 to 30 quintals per hectare. The market price of mustard is excellent, so farmers can earn a good income by doing mustard crops.
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