What is referred to as movement disorders?
Movement disorders are characterised by spasms, jerks, or shaking. They can have an impact on activities such as writing or playing the piano, as well as slow or reduce movement.
Movement disorders are classified into three types: hyperkinetic (excessive movement), hypokinetic (abnormally reduced intentional movement), and abnormal involuntary movement (dyskinesia).
Movement disorders are divided into the following types:
As a result of faulty brain signals, muscle groups contract abnormally in children with dystonia. When muscles contract in opposition to one another rather than cooperatively, both “push” and “pull” muscles are active at the same time, resulting in painful or uncomfortable twisting motions and awkward, contorting postures.
Chorea patients move in erratic, fluid patterns that have been compared to “dancing.” The child may incorporate the movements into the motions they wish to make. They can be more powerful, or they can be slow and writhing. Children with chorea in their legs may stumble and have difficulty walking, but they rarely fall.
A tremor is a rhythmic shaking or trembling of a limb. Tremor can occur at rest or while moving, and it can occur alone or in conjunction with other symptoms such as limb weakness and difficulty fine-tuning movements.
Tremor can run in families on occasion. The most common inherited variation is known as essential tremor.
Tremor can be a long-term issue or just a phase of a child’s motor development. Unlike most other movement disorders, children can consciously suppress tremors on occasion. To manage movement disorders, consult the best neurologist in Coimbatore.
Myoclonus is a movement disorder that causes incredibly quick, abrupt, involuntary muscle jerks that a child is unable to control. Jerks can be random or rhythmic, and they can be infrequent or frequent. Myoclonus triggers can include holding one’s body in a specific position, being touched, or being startled. Other times, symptoms may appear out of nowhere.
It is critical to be evaluated by a brain and nerve specialist in order to determine the type of myoclonus and its cause. Myoclonus is usually a harmless condition with no long-term consequences for a child’s health.
Myoclonus can be caused by a metabolic disorder, a neurodegenerative disease, or a severe brain injury. Children with myoclonus should have their epilepsy evaluated on a regular basis because it can be a component of the seizure disorder known as myoclonic epilepsy.
Children with parkinsonism have at least two Parkinson disease symptoms, such as muscle rigidity, balance issues or frequent falls, slow movement, or restless tremor. Children with Parkinsonism are less likely to experience movement disorders. The symptoms are most commonly seen as a side effect of medications. Parkinsonism can also be caused by brain injuries and genetic conditions that cause brain degeneration, such as Wilson disease, juvenile Huntington disease, and lysosomal disorders. To manage the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, consult the best doctor for Parkinson’s disease.
Ataxia, or a lack of motor coordination, is caused by a cerebellar injury or dysfunction. Some of its symptoms include clumsiness, poor balance, erratic movements, and the inability to make precise or fluid movements.
Ataxia can manifest itself in a variety of ways. Some cases that begin suddenly usually improve when the underlying causes, such as an infection, inflammation, or stroke, are treated. Other recurring forms of ataxia can be caused by epilepsy, genetic mutations, metabolic diseases, or unusual forms of migraine.
Spasticity is an abnormal increase in muscle tone caused by the disruption of the connections between the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that control movement and muscle tone. In everyday speech, it is also referred to as an unusual “tightness,” “stiffness,” or “pull” of muscles. Strong muscle reflexes or a shaking motion during passive stretching (known as “clonus”) are two other common symptoms. Leg spasticity can make walking difficult and necessitate the use of a wheelchair. While cerebral palsy is the most common cause of spasticity in childhood, there are numerous other acquired and genetic conditions that can also cause spasticity.
Tics are relatively brief, uncontrollable movements or noises that occur on a regular basis. They are fairly common in children and can usually be treated by a general paediatrician. Muscle tics can affect any part of the body and can range from very mild and barely perceptible to extremely bothersome, frequent, and severe. Children can usually suppress tics temporarily, but as they do so, they develop a growing sense of “wrongness” or “push.”
Functional neurological disorders:
In addition to the above-mentioned conditions, it is not uncommon for children to develop movement disorders as a result of traumatic life events. Even if no neurologic cause or condition can be found, any of the movement disorders listed above may be caused by a condition known as functional neurological symptom disorder, also known as conversion disorder.
Significant causes of movement disorders:
Movement disorders can be caused by one of three fundamental mechanisms:
Voluntary movement-controlling regions of the brain are damaged. This could cause weakness or paralysis. Most commonly, Parkinson’s disease occurs.
The basal ganglia, which are nerve cells that transmit signals to the body, have been damaged. As a result, movement may become reduced or involuntary. Huntington’s disease is one movement disorder caused by basal ganglia decline.
The cerebellum itself may be damaged. When alcoholism is severe, it manifests as a loss of coordination.
Diagnosis of various movement disorders include:
Your doctor for brain disease will ask you about your medical history and perform a physical examination with a neurological evaluation. As part of this, your coordination and reflexes will be tested. You may need to walk a short distance for your doctor to check for any issues with your walking style. To manage the condition, consult a movement disorder treatment specialist.
Additional tests may be ordered by your physician, such as:
- Analyzing cerebral spinal fluid via lumbar puncture.
- Electromyography is a technique for measuring electrical impulses that travel along nerves, nerve roots, and muscle tissue.
- The electrical activity of the brain is measured by an EEG.
- Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) to examine the electrical activity of the heart and determine if heart problems are the source of your problem.
- Muscle biopsy is used to differentiate between nerve and muscle disorders.
If you suffer from a movement disorder, deep brain stimulation (DBS) may reduce your involuntary movements. The procedure begins with the implantation of a small electrode in the brain under general anaesthesia. In the second operation, a wire from the electrode is connected to a small battery pack that sends electrical impulses via a button. After the electrode is in place, you can adjust the device on your own. The settings that will best control your symptoms will be determined in collaboration with a nervous system specialist.